Design of aluminum automotive "Space Frame"
with special regards to modular solutions

Marco Traverso


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

CAPITOLO 1 : TIPOLOGIE COSTRUTTIVE

1.1 - Historical evolution of autobile chassis and body

1.1.1 - Introduction
1.1.2 - From origins to the 40's
1.1.3 - The 50's
1.1.4 - The 60's
1.1.5 - The 70's

Fiat VSS - Veicolo Sperimentale a Sottosistemi (Subsystems Experimental Vehicle) (1978)

1.1.6 - The 80's
1.1.7 - The 90's

1.2 - Production Cars

1.2.1 - Introduction
1.2.2 - Honda NSX (1990)
1.2.3 - Audi A8 (1994)
1.2.4 - Renault Spider (1995)
1.2.5 - General Motors EV1 (1996)
1.2.6 - Lotus Elise (1996)
1.2.7 - Plymouth Prowler (1997)
1.2.8 - Fiat Multipla (1998)
1.2.9 - Audi A2 (2000)
1.2.10 - Bmw Z8 (2000)
1.2.11 - Honda S2000 (2000)
1.2.12 - Panoz Esperante (2000)
1.2.13 - Comparison
1.2.14 - Other solutions


1.3 - Concept Cars

1.3.1 - Introduction
1.3.2 - GM Saturn (1994)
1.3.3 - Dodge ESX2 (1998)
1.3.4 - Ford-Pivco Th!nk (1998)
1.3.5 - Ford P2000 (1998)
1.3.6 - Pininfarina Metrocubo (1999)
1.3.7 - Dodge ESX3 (2000)
1.3.8 - GM Precept (2000)
1.3.9 - Others

1.4 - Research and future developments

1.4.1 - Alcan ASVT (Aluminum Structured Vehicle Technology)
1.4.2 - Alcoa AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle)
1.4.3 - Fiat Space Frame and Dual Frame
1.4.4 - Foresight Vehicle Programme
1.4.5 - Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)
1.4.6 - Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB)

1.5 - Soluzioni a Confronto

1.5.1 - Introduction
1.5.2 - Steel unibody construction
1.5.3 - Aluminum unibody construction
1.5.4 - Tubular chassis
1.5.5 - Body-on-frame construction
1.5.6 - Backbone Chassis
1.5.7 - Carbon fiber unibody
1.5.8 - Conclusions

1.6 - Space Frame

1.6.1 - Definition
1.6.2 - Functional features
1.6.3 - Global production aspects
1.6.4 - Introduction to Chapters 2 and 3

Chapter 1 Bibliography

CHAPTER 2 : MATERIALS

Introduction

2.1 - Aluminum alloys

2.1.1 - Aluminum in the automotive industry
2.1.2 - Aluminum alloys properties and structural applications
2.1.3 - Material costs
2.1.4 - Design criteria
2.1.5 - Extruded components
2.1.6 - Stamped components
2.1.7 - Die cast components
2.1.8 - Crash behaviour
2.1.9 - Riciclability
2.1.10 - Repairability

2.2 - Other materials

2.2.1 - Special steels
2.2.2 - Plastics
2.2.3 - Carbon fiber composites

2.3 - Conclusions

2.3.1 - Material comparison and future developments

Chapter 2 Bibliography

CHAPTER 3 - TECHNOLOGIES

3.1 - Forming technologies:

3.1.1 - Extrusion
3.1.2 - Stamping
3.1.3 - Die casting
3.1.4 - Bending)
3.1.5 - Hydroforming
3.1.6 - Tailor Welded Blanks
3.1.7 - Other technologies:

Super Plastic Forming (SPF)
Semi-Solid Forming (or Rheocasting)
Electro-Magnetic Forming

3.2 - Joining technologies:

3.2.1 - Introduction
3.2.2 - Resistance spot welding (RSW)
3.2.3 - MIG - TIG welding
3.2.4 - Laser welding
3.2.5 - Magnetic pulse welding (MPW)
3.2.6 - Friction stir welding
3.2.7 - Mechanical joints: rivets and clinching
3.2.8 - Adhesives
3.2.9 - Hybrid joints
3.2.10 - Comparison

Chapter 3 Bibliography

CAPITOLO 4 : DESIGN CRITERIA

4.1 - Features list

4.1.1 - General considerations

4.2 - Performance fetures

4.2.1 - Static and dynamic behaviour

Static resistance
Torsional stiffness
Mass reduction

4.2.2 - Safety

Crash behaviour

4.2.3 - Durability

Fatigue resistance
Corrosion resistance

4.2.4 - Comfort

NVH behaviour (Noise, Vibration & Harshness)
Accessibilità
Interior space
Visibility

4.2.5 - Maintenance

Repairability

4.2.6 - Performance fetures and production aspects relationship

4.3 - Enviromental impact

4.3.1 - Energy consumption and pollution emissions
4.3.2 - Riciclability

4.4 - Production costs

4.4.1 - Materials costs
4.4.2 - Working costs
4.4.3 - Production total costs
4.4.4 - Global economic consideratios and conclusions
4.4.5 - Platform Sharing
4.4.6 - Experience and innovation

Chapter 4 Bibliography

CHAPTER 5 : CASE STUDY - DESIGN OF SPACE FRAME FOR A MULTI PURPOSE CITY CAR (ONLY IN ITALIAN)

5.1 - Campo di Applicazione e Progettazione Metodica

5.1.1 - Scelta del campo di applicazione
5.1.2 - Progettazione Metodica

5.2 - Chiarimento del Compito

5.2.1 - Raccolta Dati

Soluzioni alternative di City Car
Normative tecniche e Codice della Strada

5.2.2 - Studio di fattibilità
5.2.3 - Lista dei Requisiti

5.3 - Concezione del Sistema Meccanico

5.3.1 - Studio della Funzione

Principio Tecnologico
Processo Tecnico
Struttura della Funzione

5.3.2 - Attuatori delle Funzioni Parziali

Tabella Morfologica

5.3.3 - Schemi di Principio

5.3.4 - Valutazione

5.4 - Sviluppo del Progetto

5.4.1 - Progetto preliminare

Schematizzazione strutturale
Materiali utilizzati
Ipotesi di calcolo
Metodo numerico di calcolo
Verifica preliminare di resistenza ai carichi statici
Misurazione della rigidezza torsionale
Struttura di base
Analisi di sensibilità
Struttura di base modificata
Distribuzione delle sollecitazioni
Analisi di sensibilità
Ottimizzazione
Verifica di resistenza ai carichi dinamici

5.5 - Layout del Veicolo

5.5.1 - Versioni a passo corto
5.5.2 - Versioni a passo lungo
Conclusioni

Bibliografia Capitolo 5

General Bibliography

Abbreviations

 
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